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HIV is a Retrovirus, which means it has 2 RNA Strands and 3 essential enzymes. This virus causes AIDS. HIV directly infects any cell that is CD4+, and that has a CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptor. Other immune cells usually work abnormally in this disease.

Proteins and EnzymesEdit

GlycoproteinsEdit

HIV has two glycoproteins on its surface. One is GP120, and the other is GP41. These 2 proteins are made from a protein called GP160, which will be cut by the viral Protease into the smaller glycoproteins. GP120 is the one that binds to the CD4 receptor and CCR5, CXCR4 coreceptors. Undergoing a comformational change, GP120 makes way for GP41, to draw the virus and cell membrane together for fusion.

EnzymesEdit

3 enzymes are released from the viral nucleocapsid. They are Integrase, which will help to integrate the proviral DNA into the host's genome. Transcription of viral DNA and translation of the viral proteins occur, and Protease cleaves the longer proteins into the enzymes, the glycroproteins, and the capsid subunits, the coreproteins. Reverse Transcriptase reverse transcribes the viral RNA into the DNA essential to the virion's replication.

Other ProteinsEdit

The nucleocapsid is made of coreproteins, and some proteins may be captured when the capsid leaves the cell.

How HIV ReplicatesEdit

HIV Infection05:17

HIV Infection

3D Medical animation of HIV









Drugs to prevent HIV ReplicationEdit

HIV is highly managable now. Many drugs have been made for example. Some examples are CCR5 or CXCR4 antagonists, and fusion inhibitors, which are in the EI ( entry inhibitor ) class. Protease inhibitors include peptidic protease inhibitors, and non peptidic inhibitors, such as Tipranavir. Reverse Transcriptase can also be inhibited by Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors ( NRTI's ) and Non Nucleoside Inhibitors, ( NNRTI's ) An example of an NNRTI is Nevirapine, a drug developed by Boehringer Ingelheim.


Mode of action of NNRTIs02:48

Mode of action of NNRTIs

Mechanism of RTI's









Tipranavir Mechanism05:16

Tipranavir Mechanism

Mechanism of Tipranavir










ResistanceEdit

Sometimes HIV can develop mutants that are resistant to many drugs. This can cause problems.

HIV Resistance05:21

HIV Resistance

Resistance of HIV

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